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RyRRyanodine Receptor
RyRRed Yeast Rice
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References in periodicals archive ?
Results from intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] cycling proteins SERCA2a, PLB, pPLB Ser16, pPLB Thr17, RYR, CSQ, NCX, and L-type [Ca.sup.2+] channel are summarized in Figure 5 and 6.
RYRs are a family of intracellular calcium ([Ca.sup.2+]) release channels that allow rapid release of [Ca.sup.2+] from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytosol, crucial for heart and skeletal muscle contraction.
(1) No change/or decrease in L-type [Ca.sup.2+] channel activity, (2) increase in [Na.sup.+]/[Ca.sup.2+] exchange current, (3) decrease in SR [Ca.sup.2+] content, (4) decrease in SR [Ca.sup.2+] uptake, and (5) increase in [Ca.sup.2+] release through RYR. SR: sarcoplasmic reticulum; RYR: ryanodine receptor; SERCA: sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase; NCX: [Na.sup.+]/[Ca.sup.2+] exchanger; --: no effect; [up arrow]: increased activity; [down arrow]: decreased activity (adapted from Eisner, 2013).
Although the etiology of CVSPs has not been determined, it has been associated with increased vascular tone due to persistent elevation of intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) [2, 3], which may be secondary to (1) increased extracellular [Ca.sup.2+] entry into the cell [4] or to (2) increased release of this ion from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which is mediated by the ryanodine receptors (RyRs) [5].
Calcium release mediated by RyR channels is becoming an important subject in the study of learning and memory under normal and pathological conditions.
RYR (LipoCol Forte) was obtained from NatureWise Biotech & Medicals Corporation (Taipei, Taiwan) and extracted at room temperature [15, 16].
List of Abbreviations AF: Atrial fibrillation APD: Action potential duration CaMKII: [Ca.sup.2+]/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II Cx43: Connexin 43 CV: Conduction velocity DAD: Delayed afterdepolarization EAD: Early afterdepolarization ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator NCX: [Na.sup.+]/[Ca.sup.2+] exchanger PLB: Phospholamban ROS: Reactive oxygen species RyR: Ryanodine receptor SERCA: Sarco-/endoplasmic reticulum [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase SCA: Sudden cardiac arrest SCD: Sudden cardiac death TGF-[beta]: Transforming Growth Factor-[beta] VT: Ventricular tachycardia VF: Ventricular fibrillation ZO-1: Zonula Occludens-1.
On the contrary, other studies reported that [beta]-adrenergic agonists activate protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates [I.sub.CaL], RyR, PLB, SERCA, and [I.sub.Ks], resulting in delayed afterdepolarization (DADs) [18].
RyR and PLN are two key [Ca.sup.2+]-handling/regulatory proteins that can be phosphorylated to modify SR release and reuptake of [Ca.sup.2+] (Kranias and Hajjar 2012; Van Petegem 2012).
It could, in eect, mean It could, in eect, mean EVERY RYR THING for one club.
GARY RYR Rowett has pulled a rabbit out of the emergency loan hat by securing the services of Diego Fabbrini until the end of the season.
A DOCUMENTA NTANT RYR about Y about the Hillsborough tragedy won an award at a ceremony in Australia.