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First, S-GW and P-GW are combined within a single node.
To overcome these challenges, we rebuild the current LENA simulation as follow: first decouple the S-GW and P-GW, by creating a separated S-GW node and modify the P-GW.
Second scenario: Figure 7 depicts the second scenario, where we combine S-GW and P-GW in C-GW node.
The transmission delay for the first scenario is significantly increasing with the data path because the data packets are delivered by centralized anchor P-GW and S-GW. The second scenario increased too because the data packets are delivered to the remote host by two C-GWs.
We have described a flat mobile network basing on the merge of the S-GW and P-GW in one node and the increase of the C-GW amount.
EPC networks are formed of several functional entities: 1) P-GWs, which provide mobile users an access to a PDN by allocating the IP addresses, and also provide IP routing and forwarding S-GWs; 2) Mobility Management Entities (MMEs) that provide several functions, including mobility management and handover management; 3) Home Subscriber Servers (HSSs) provide user profiles and authentication data and Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) servers; 4) S-GWs act as local mobility anchors for inter-eNB handover; 5) PCRF controls the charging rules and quality of service.
At an EPC network, data paths are established between eNBs and P-GWs via S-GWs, and uses GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) for tunneling.
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- S-E ADL
- S-H ABC
- S-I joint
- S-K reduction machine
- S-Lac lectin 1
- S-Lac lectin 2
- S-LAM alpha
- S-LAM beta