has been demonstrated to capture early signs of problems in adjustment to university and to predict persistence and academic achievement (Abdullah, Elias, Mahyuddin, & Uli, 2009; Bernier, Larose, Boivin, & Soucy, 2004; Ostrove & Long, 2007; Padgett, Johnson, & Pascarella, 2012; Wintre et al., 2011; Yazedjian, Toews, & Navarro, 2009).
Supplemental analysis of variance results showed no significant differences in CSEI, SDS Self-Estimates subscale, or SACQ
total score by form of participation (paper or online), semester or year of enrollment, gender, racial/ethnic identification, or parents' highest level of formal education.
was defined as a minimum of 2 years without clinical activity and persistent serologic activity as defined by elevated anti-double stranded DNA and/or hypocomplementemia.
According to the SACQ
test manual (Baker & Siryk, 1989), studies have found internal reliability coefficients for the four subscales ranging from .81 to .90 for the Academic Adjustment subscale, from .83 to .91 for the Social Adjustment subscale, from .77 to .86 for the Personal-Emotional Adjustment subscale, and from .85 to .91 for the Institutional Attachment subscale.
Sixth, studies need to use reliable and valid measures of college adjustment (e.g., SACQ
) and predictor variables so that results may be generalized.
The subscale of vocational identity, God's purpose, and overall vocation correlated positively with all subscales of the SACQ
. The subscale confusion was negatively correlated with all subscales of the SACQ
However, they reported no sex differences in academic, social, or personal-emotional adjustment or attachment to the institution, as measured by the SACQ
. Similarly, Leong and Bonz (1997) found no statistically significant differences in adjustment as measured by the SACQ
; however, they reported trend-like differences, with women adjusting at higher levels in the social and academic adjustment domains than men did.
TABLE 1 Correlations Among Measures of Separation-Individuation, Attachment Styles, and College Adjustment Adult Attachment Styles Pre- Measure Secure Fearful occupied Dismissing Separation-Individuation PSI AI-Mother -.06 .07 .07 -.11 CI-Mother .18 -.24 * -.31 * .06 EI-Mother -.04 -.08 -.13 -.06 FI-Mother -.06 -.04 -.09 -.05 AI-Father -.07 .10 -.01 -.06 CI-Father .19 -.24 * -.19 .01 EI-Father .03 -.07 -.24 * -.03 FI-Father -.08 -.07 -.15 -.04 PATHSEP -.39 * .43 * .45 * -.04 College Adjustment SACQ
Social Adjustment .33 * -.42 * -.23 * .09 PEA .26 * -.29 * -.26 * -.09 College Adjustment Measure Social Adj.
The criterion variable was the academic adjustment subscale of the SACQ
, a measure of the perception that one is meeting educational demands in college (24 items): 1 (Doesn't Apply to Me at All) to 9 (Applies Very Closely to Me).
Furthermore, a potential methodological limitation of the study was its reliance on an abbreviated CSEI and a truncated version of the SACQ
(i.e., students completed only the Academic Adjustment subscale).
Each person received a questionnaire packet, and completed the measures in the following sequence: A demographics form depending on their MK or Non-MK status, PAQ, SSSQ, HCSS, and the SACQ
. Free pizza was served at each session.
Participants completed the SACQ
and the SPS at this time.