Sherman (1998) advocated the use of empowerment and self-efficacy to help SAPW.
Kissin and colleagues' (2001) study indicated that more than 39 percent of SAPW were unskilled, and 68 percent had been unemployed in the past three years.
Amaro and Hardy-Fanta's (1995) interviews with SAPW found "relationships" as the key theme.
SAPW often encounter child protective services (CPS).
A SAPW or family with an earlier negative experience with CPS may perceive any CPS worker as biased against them, regardless of repeated good intentions.
It is imperative for social workers to educate society and policymakers about the implications of criminalizing SAPW and to advocate for policies less oriented toward punishment and more toward rehabilitation and harm reduction (Finfgeld).
Although SAPW is a top priority for federal funding, establishing a pregnancy-specific program is a challenge.