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Since its inception in 2003, SBAP has awarded a total of $273,000 to grant recipients with small businesses from the food service, plumbing, safety, tourism, and communications industries, Johnson says.
[9] were the first to present a discrete DBAP model which was an extension of an SBAP. Decision variables were used to assign ships to berths and scheduled their processing sequence in each assigned berth.
[16] formulated an SBAP as a nonlinear integer programming model to minimize the weighted objective of two conflicting criteria: berth performance and berthing satisfaction.
Among the bone formation markers, assays for sBAP were used more frequently than those for serum osteocalcin (sOC), contributing 27% of all analyses (sOC contributed 18%).
The immunoassays for sBAP exhibited mean [CV.sub.IL]s of 21% (IRMA) and 18% (EIA), whereas the lectin precipitation assay had a mean [CV.sub.IL] of 30%.
For policy-makers, such understanding, among other things, will aid in formulating policies and developing small business assistance programs (SBAPs).
Understanding the problem patterns can aid policy-markers of small business in designing and implementing appropriate SBAPs. For example, more effort could be directed to the areas of marketing, business planning and training.
However, when the niche is mature and near or at its maximum carrying capacity (as in old or traditional industry), and assistance is provided to start-up and strengthen small businesses in that niche, then secondary benefits are likely to be negligible or even negative, because job creation (or retention) in SBAP assisted businesses is likely to be offset elsewhere in the niche by organisation dissolution and job losses (Fischer, 1988).