First, a preliminary analysis of the SBBE was conducted to test its appropriateness on a sample of soccer spectators.
The questionnaire included demographic questions and the 49-item SBBE (Ross et al., 2008) scale composed of brand awareness and brand associations.
Two of the researchers reviewed and edited the SBBE items after the preliminary analysis.
The goodness-of-fit indices produced through the CFA indicated that the SBBE model showed a poor fit to the data [[chi square](580)=1637.10 (p<.001), TLI=.86, CFI=.87, GFI=.86, RMSEA=.06].
Based on the data from the preliminary analysis of the SBBE scale on soccer spectators, the review of the items resulted in the rewording of 13 items, the removal of nine items, and the addition of six items.
Furthermore, Bollen (1989) suggests that despite the cut-off points, it is important to compare the fit of the model with the fit of prior research models, and the fit indices produced are comparable to the previously established SBBE fit indices (Ross et al., 2008).
The differences observed between the original SBBE model used in Step 1 and the final model reinforce the idea that brand equity is environmentally sensitive (Yoo & Donthu, 2002).