Inclusion criteria for patients were: (a) age between 18-60 years; (b) diagnosis of schizophrenia; c) patients who were clinically stable as assessed by scores on the PANSS (see below).
The mean ([+ or -] SD) scores in the positive and negative subscales of the PANSS were, respectively, 10.28 ([+ or -] 2.78) and 19.67 ([+ or -] 7.73), indicating a chronic condition with predominance of negative symptoms.
Toxoplasma-seropositive and Toxoplasma-seronegative patients presented similar scores in the scales that evaluated depressive symptoms, cognitive performance and quality of life (Table 2).
As Table 3 shows, there was a significant positive correlation (.72) between overall RA and overall SCORS for nonabused adolescents (shared variance of about .50).
For this control group, strong positive correlations between SCORS and RA subscales were found, with the exception of Affect Tone, the one subscale that does not follow a developmental pattern.
Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS): Manual for coding TAT data.
The adolescents provided a 5-minute narrative about their mothers, which was scored for referential activity and object relations.
First, as a result of the trauma experienced during the course of development, physically abused adolescents were expected to have lower scores, compared with nonabused adolescents, on the RA subscales of symbolizing capacity.
As recommended by Westen, data were scored by two raters, and the Spearman-Brown Formula was used to determine the reliability of the multiply scored results.
Scores on each subscale range from 1 (the lowest level) to 10.
Thus, the first hypothesis, which stated that physically abused adolescents would have significantly lower scores, was not supported.
In fact, the data suggest that abused adolescents tend to rely more heavily on evocative expressions containing sensory images than do their nonabused counterparts, as evidenced by higher RA scores on the Concreteness and Imagery subscales.