Furthermore, per SCVWD standard design philosophy for reliability and protection of the public water supply, the field joints were all bell and spigot welded lap joints.
SCVWD required that the new relocated pipe be steel pipe and not PCCP or CCP.
SCVWD had their own unique thrust restraint design procedure that is based on a paper written in 1963 by James M.
There are a few inherent flaws in the Gere paper that SCVWD has addressed in their own internal design manual, portions of which were shared with the design team.
Initial designs required installation of 45 degree elbows, but both SCVWD and the designers agreed that a smaller angle would lessen the thrust forces.
Method 2, Gere as modified by the SCVWD Design Manual; and