SDLDLSmall Dense Low Density Lipoprotein
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Recent studies suggest that sdLDL can have multiple origins, at least in patients with metabolic disorders.
This leads to the production of smaller sdLDL particles.
Assays for direct LDL and sdLDL-C have previously been calibrated and directly compared with concentrations obtained after isolation of LDL and sdLDL by ultracentrifugation, and very similar results were obtained (10).
Abbreviations CVD --cardiovascular diseases CHD --coronary heart disease LDL --low-density lipoprotein HDL --high-density lipoprotein sdLDL --small, dense low-density lipoprotein MONICA --Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease BMI --body mass index DOI: 10.2298/MPNS1408208E
Another simple calculation that strongly correlates with the presence of insulin resistance, a preponderance of sdLDL (phenotype B), and significantly higher CHD risk is an elevated TG:HDL ratio.
Using a gradient ultracentrifugation technique, we have previously shown that in plasma of either normolipidemic volunteers (16, 25) or patients with various types of dyslipidemia (26, 27), the majority of the LDL-associated Lp-[PLA.sub.2] activity was bound to sdLDL particles.
Interpretation of LDL subclasses on iodixanol was based on the identification and validation of a diagnostic cutoff that delineated a predominance of sdLDL (pattern B) and on the strength of association between this diagnostic index and other lipid indices.
(10, 11) In obese and/or insulin resistant individuals, insulin loses the ability to inhibit VLDL secretion from the liver and can no longer suppress the mobilization of FFA, events that lead to elevated triglycerides and post-prandial increases in VLDL, increased levels of plasma LDL, significantly more sdLDL, and a decrease in both classes of HDL.
In women, %TFM and %LFM were significantly but oppositely related to HDL-C, sdLDL, ApoA1, leptin, PAI-1, CRP, TNF-[alpha], and SBP, but the significances were weakened or even completely disappeared after multivariable adjustment.
NAFLD is associated with increased serum LDL, very low density lipopro-tein (VLDL), small dense LDL (sdLDL) and TG, combined with decreased HDL that represents a threat for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development15,16.
In T2DM, dyslipidemia is characterized by an increased level of triglycerides, usually accompanied by high total cholesterol level, low concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and by the presence of small dense low--density lipoprotein (sdLDL) [44].
Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, small dense LDL (sdLDL), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and non-HDL-C were determined at baseline and at the end of 8-week treatment period.