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The anomalous anticyclonic circulation was developing in the coastline of East Asia in the four typical SDNF years (Figure 11).
For the SDNF pattern, the summer atmospheric circulation patterns for the selected typical years at the 500 hPa (200 hPa) level are comparable for the periods 19611979 and 1980-2013, respectively.
In this study, the spatiotemporal variability of summer drought as presented by SPI3 over the MLRYRB is extracted by EOF decomposition, and the summer drought of the MLRYRB is mainly featured by three patterns, including (i) dry conditions in the whole MLRYRB (referred to as WBWD pattern), (ii) dry conditions in the southern part of the MLRYRB with wet conditions in the northern part (referred to as SDNF pattern), and (iii) wet conditions in the southern portion of the MLRYRB with dry conditions in the northern portion (referred to as SFND pattern).
For the SDNF pattern during 1961-1979, the straight westerly circulation and weakened polar vortex blocked the southward extension of the northerly cold flow.
Specifically, for the SDNF (SFND) pattern, the atmospheric internal mechanism for 1961-1979 is different from that for 1980-2013.
(d) The scatter diagram of the PC1 versus PC2 for 1961-2013, in which the WBWD, SDNF, and SFND years are colored in red, blue, and green, respectively.
Caption: Figure 10: 500 hPa GPH (contour) and its corresponding anomalies (shading) (units: gpm) of the SDNF pattern in the summers of (a) 1963, (b) 1965, (c) 1991, and (d) 2003; blue lines denote the climatology of 5880 gpm.
Caption: Figure 11: Anomalies of vertically integrated water vapor flux (arrows, units: kg [m.sup.-1] [s.sup.-1]) of the SDNF pattern in the summers of (a) 1963, (b) 1965, (c) 1991, and (d) 2003.
Caption: Figure 12: 200 hPa GPH anomalies (shading) (units: gpm) of the SDNF pattern in the summers of (a) 1963, (b) 1965, (c) 1991, and (d) 2003; blue lines denote the climatology of 12480 gpm and black lines indicate 12480 gpm for the typical years.
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