We used descriptive statistics, [chi square] test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Fisher exact test to compare demographics between clusters of SDSE to determine whether they differed with respect to key risk factors.
SDSE isolates from blood represented 89 (73%) of 122 total isolates; 33 (37%) of the 89 isolates were from female patients and 56 (63%) were from male patients.
The gene for bca, which has only rarely been described in SDSE, was present in a minority of our isolates (9.
Although SDSE has long been considered much less virulent than S.
Despite this absence of some virulence factors, clinical (4,13,20) and epidemiologic reports (5,6,8-10,21) indicate that SDSE is pathogenic for humans, particularly, elderly persons with coexisting conditions.
In Japan, we have organized large-scale epidemiologic surveillance for [beta]-streptococci that are causing invasive infections and have identified SDSE as the most prevalent [beta]-streptococcal pathogen since 2003 (22,25).
pyogenes (26), gene sequence analysis has been applied to emm typing for epidemiologic study of SDSE.
Infections with iSDSE were defined as cases in which SDSE was isolated from normally sterile clinical samples such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, joint fluid, or pus obtained from within a closed space.
Sequencing showed that 254 of the strains showed highest homology with the 16S rRNA gene from SDSE and that the sequences of the remaining 59 strains were homologous to S.
All 254 strains that were specified as SDSE on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence were negative in moac-PCR.
Examination of clinical isolates from patients with purulent infections of the upper respiratory tract, the urinary tract, and invasive infections showed that SDSE is dominant in GCGS infections in Vellore, accounting for 81% of the cases.
Most of the 254 SDSE strains included in this study were positive for the emm gene by PCR.