According to the SES-CD, among 49 patients, 13 were inactive, 19 were mild Figures 1(a)-1(c), and 17 were moderate-severe Figures 2(a)-2(c).
In addition, the correlation coefficient between HBI and SES-CD was r = 0.590 (P < 0.001).
Our study showed that bowel wall thickening, mural hyperenhancement, and the [DELTA]CT value were moderately correlated with SES-CD, which was in line with the results of some studies about CTE [4, 8] and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) [9, 10].
Abbreviations CTE: Computed tomography enterography SES-CD: Simplified endoscopic activity score for CD CD: Crohn's disease HBI: The Harvey-Bradshaw index CRP: C-reactive protein ESR: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate MPR: Multiplanar reformation MIP: Maximum intensity projection PGE: Polyethylene glycol electrolyte.
van Assche et al., "Development and validation of a new, simplified endoscopic activity score for Crohn's disease: the SES-CD," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
Spearman's rho rank test was used for correlations between endoscopic SES-CD, histopathological score, SMAD4, and SMAD7.
When correlated to disease activity, we found that luminal SMAD4 expression was significantly inversely correlated to the severity of the disease in terms of SES-CD and histopathological activity.
Disease activity assessed by endoscopy was calculated using the simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) (Table 1) .
Vitamin D Status and Disease Severity Measured by SES-CD. Endoscopic evaluation of disease severity showed that 8.4% of the patients was in clinical remission, 17.6% were mildly active, 43.5% had moderately active disease, and 30.5% had severely active disease.
To further investigate the association between vitamin D levels and clinical disease severity, we adopted SES-CD, in addition to CDAI and CRP levels; SES-CD was chosen to assess disease activity and mucosal inflammation.
Our study is the first to report an inverse correlation between SES-CD and serum 25OHD concentrations, after analyzing the data from 131 patients with CD.
Caption: FIGURE 1: Comparison of serum 25OHD level of patients among clinical remission group, mildly active group, moderately active group, and severely active group stratified by SES-CD scores, P = 0.001.