Among SGEG parasites from Malawi and Tanzania, [[PHI].
In each PCoA plot, SGEG parasites from Malawi, the DRC, and Tanzania were consistently distant from each other in the 2 plotted dimensions, and other relationships among populations were variable.
To further investigate this apparent divergence of SGEG haplotypes, we computed an NJ network based on pairwise linear genetic distances among all 193 isolates.
In an analysis restricted to the 32 parasites bearing the SGEG dhps haplotype, 2 population clusters were identified with the highest posterior probability.
In comparative analyses, these dhps triple-mutant SGEG haplotypes from Malawi were strongly divergent from haplotypes collected in northern Tanzania, which suggested independent emergence of this drug-resistant haplotype in these 2 settings in eastern Africa.
Our data indicate that triple-mutant SGEG dhps haplotypes from Malawi, Tanzania, and the DRC represent distinct lineages.
Parasites from Malawi and Tanzania were most consistently partitioned into distinct SGEG lineages and showed statistically significant divergence by [[PHI].
Recent studies of pregnant women have implicated parasites bearing the SGEG dhps haplotype with undermining the efficacy of IPTp-SP (J.
In areas in which parasites bearing the SGEG haplotypes are emerging, studies of parasite genomics and phenotypes can further investigate these possibilities.
Similarly, a previous global survey of dhps haplotypes suggested that resistant lineages originated in Southeast Asia and migrated to Africa (17), although this study did not include any parasites from Africa with the SGEG dhps haplotype.
During this period, SGEG haplotypes arose after SGEA haplotypes had achieved near fixation.
First, these data suggest that the SGEG haplotype may arise where a SGEA haplotype is circulating without requiring the importation of a new mutant haplotype.