The Tennessee and Virginia SHDs established new electronic NAS case reporting systems, and the Kentucky SHD used paper-based case report forms with plans to transition to an electronic reporting system.
This will be helpful because surveyed state officials noted that the absence of a standardized NAS case definition introduces substantial variability in the type and number of cases reported to SHDs. For example, only Georgia's NAS case definition includes asymptomatic infants with positive toxicology tests to be reported to the SHD.
Laws were cross-referenced with states' disease reporting lists on SHD websites.
Georgia's SHD also requires that infants with positive toxicology results be reported to the SHD as a NAS case even in the absence of a clinical diagnosis of NAS by a medical provider.
IDC notes that the findings of its survey highlight the fact that SHD
advertising should explain the benefits of the product while PC advertising should emphasise the reasons for replacing older systems.
This funding was key to increasing the number of ID epidemiologists and the surveillance and response capabilities of SHDs. However, barriers to preparedness remain, and continued public, political, and financial support are essential to removing these barriers.
Second, although all SHD workers described in the surveys performed duties related to epidemiology, because of broad differences in academic background and experience, the nature of their roles and abilities were highly variable.
Since 1987, the Wisconsin, Maryland, and Colorado SHDs have implemented similar BLL surveillance systems, and other states are considering such systems.
Although the details of these systems, each state requires any laboratory that performs blood-lead assays to report all elevated blood-lead levels (BLLs) to the state health department (SHD) (Table 1).
In New York, selected worksite industrial hygiene surveys are conducted by the SHD, which refers employers to the State Department of Labor for technical assistance.