Interventions used in treating cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or biotherapy individually or in any combination (Marian, 1998; Ottery, 1995; Shils & Shike, 1999).
Corticosteroids can improve appetite and sense of well-being, but their effect is usually short term (approximately 4 weeks) without actual improvement in nutritional status (Marian, 1998; Shils & Shike, 1999).
There has been little data to show that TPN can play a significant role in surgical patients except for preoperative support (7 to 10 days) of the severely malnourished patient (Heys, Park, Garlick, & Eremin, 1992; Shils & Shike, 1999).
This procedure allows the patient to take adequate fluid, nourishment, and medications in the comfort of their home and avoid hospitalization (Bloch & Brown, 1990; Shike, 1999; Shils & Shike, 1999).
Any patient who has a PEJ requires feeding by pump to avoid dumping syndrome and allow meeting optimal nutritional goals (Eisbenberg, 1994; Shike, 1999; Shils & Shike, 1999).
The availability of an experienced health care team for patient management, support, and follow up is essential (Bloch & Brown, 1990; Shils & Brown, 1999).