Jung (2008) found that a combination of physical, human, and social factors (other than age) influence the SLDD.
Related to the socio-cultural influences of the SLDD, Stevenson (2009) argues that the SLDD involves the interrelationship between social classes, information creation, and information ownership.
However, the common thread in all the research is that the divide is not simply due to differences in access to physical/digital technology, but rather there appears to be SLDD which is due to differences in physical/digital, human, and social factors that influence how members of society use the technology (Hargittai,2002; Stevenson, 2009; Stevenson, 2008; Valadez & Duran, 2007; Warschauer, 2003).
To summarize, a wide body of literature reports that the SLDD is a serious issue and that the SLDD has the potential for social exclusion (Hargittai, 2002; Stevenson, 2008; Valadez & Duran, 2007; Warschauer, 2003).
Rather, the SLDD is a complex issue concerning physical access as well as the personal characteristics of the teacher (such as gender, race, ethnicity, language skills, culture, and economic background), and the curriculum of the school or district (such as content, form and structure) (Natriello, 2001).
Warschauer (2007) further explains the SLDD by enumerating five different digital divides that include both physical and human factors.
Banister and Fischer (2010) found that the SLDD can be reduced by providing continued technology support and training that motivates teachers to utilize technology in their classroom.
The diverse teaching experiences of the teachers who enroll in this graduate class have prompted the researchers' interest in further studying the SLDD.