The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of the MAO and SMAO coatings were characterized using a CamScan 3400 scanning electron microscope (SEM).
When AC1 was used in SMAO, an incubation period of approximately 5~10 s was required for weak spark formation to occur after which the number of sparks began to increase quickly.
Comparing SMAO and MAO discharge behavior in AC mode, the primary similarity is that sparks initially appeared on the cathode surface after which both processes tended to develop strong microarc discharges.
The primary differences in discharge behavior between SMAO and MAO can be summarized as follows.
Some insight about the SMAO discharge geometry can be obtained by considering electrical discharge machining (EDM).
SMAO incubation times were recorded and the results in Table 3 clearly show that it is proportional to the interelectrode gap at distances of 5 mm and greater.
The corresponding ATPase activities in the SMAO and SMAO + MLR groups were significantly lower than in the sham and MLR groups; and the activities of [Ca.sup.2+] -ATPase and [Mg.sup.2+] -ATPase in the SMAO + MLR group were further decreased compared to those in the SMAO group.
ICAM-1 levels and MPO activity in the SMAO group were significantly higher than in the sham and MLR groups and were significantly higher in the SMAO + MLR group than in each of the other three groups (Figure 5).
These indices were higher in the SMAO and MLR + SMAO groups than in the sham and MLR groups, and, except for TNF-[alpha], they were further increased in the MLR+SMAO compared with the SMAO group.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the effects of MLR on the spleens of rats subjected to SMAO shock.
In this study, we found that the NO level and NOS activity in splenic tissue of rats subjected to MLR + SMAO shock were higher than that of the sham and MLR groups.
However, it is not clear whether membrane pump dysfunction is involved in the spleen injury following SMAO shock.