He said teacher development, especially at primary and secondary schools, was the key factor in education, adding that Botswana affiliated to the SMASE in an effort to strengthen the teaching and learning of maths and science.
He explained that in areas of maths and science, research was not enough as teachers were not conducting it, but that SMASE emphasised that teachers should conduct research.
Finally, with administration of SMase inhibitors and SMase knockdown by siRNA, SMase knockout mice have reduced ceramide accumulation during IR and attenuated cell apoptosis and tissue damage through a mechanism that may involve the blockade of C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, the impairment of mitochondrial function, and activation of caspases [21, 22, 35-37].
These increases in ceramide were not associated with SMase activity, but rather with reduced ceramidase activity .
It is well known that TNF-a increases ceramides production via SMase
that hydrolyses sphingomyelin, the most abundant sphingolipid specie in cell membranes .
PLase A2, C, D, lysophospholipase, glycerophospholipase, and SMase
derived from Streptomyces sp.
In fact, it induces SMase
activity that subsequently increases Cer-rich membrane platforms and initiated intracellular signaling processes by clustering different receptors into these platforms.
Surprisingly, the suppression of sphingomyelin synthesis using D609 (a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor) after the SMase
treatment markedly inhibits apoA-I-mediated cholesterol release, which is contrary to our expectation.
The enzymatic activities of [beta]-galactosidase ([beta]-Gal), [beta]-glucosidase GBA1, [beta]-glucosidase GBA2, [beta]-hexosaminidase ([beta]-Hex), and sphingomyelinases (SMase
) were determined in the total cell lysates using fluorigenic substrates, as previously described with few modifications [37,38].
Consistent with a significant role for SM in the brain , as SMase
is the enzyme that catalyzes SM hydrolysis, these data indicated that nSMase could have a role in the dentate gyrus function.
It is known that sphingomyelinases (SMases
) hydrolyse sphingomyelin releases ceramide and results in the accumulation of phytosphingosine (4) and sphingasine (7) (Pavoine and Pecker, 2009).