As a SMBH accretes surrounding matter with a rest-frame mass of m, it gains its mass by 1 - [eta]/[eta] [mc.
The SMBH and accretion disk are surrounded by a larger ([?
When the line-of-sight toward the SMBH is unblocked by the torus (face-on view), one can observe the broad line region and unabsorbed X-ray continuum.
The discovery of the SMBH downsizing was striking because this trend is apparently opposite to a naive prediction from the standard structure-formation theory of the universe based on cold dark matter models, where more massive dark matter halos formed more recently by merging from less massive ones.
They used imaging data at these wavelengths to establish a method to differentiate the activities of deeply buried, active SMBHs from those of star formation.
Subaru Telescope's adaptive optics system enabled the team to obtain high spatial resolution images that allowed them to effectively investigate emission that originates in active SMBHs in the nuclear regions of galaxies by minimizing emission contamination from galaxy-wide, star-forming activity.
SMBH proved that Fireman's Fund breached its contractual obligation to complete the hotel, now owned and successfully operated by brothers Edward and Thomas Slatkin.
SMBH refused to let Fireman's Fund walk away from their duty.
As the number of SMBHs with reliable black hole spin measurements grows, so too will our knowledge of spin demographics and its relation to other physical properties of SMBH systems such as mass, accretion rate, jet power, and host-galaxy mass and type.
Although the exact role of spin in jet production remains unclear, a recent theoretical study by David Garofalo (JPL/ Caltech) and his colleagues concludes that retrograde-spinning black holes can power jets up to 100 times stronger than their prograde counterparts, but that retrograde spin will only persist for a short fraction of a SMBH's lifetime, usually immediately after a major galaxy merger that leads to an SMBH merger.
A larger sample size of SMBH and GBH spins is needed to begin finding answers.
I'm one of the lead investigators behind the effort to measure SMBH spin using broad iron spectral lines.