Zwally, 1996: Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR
and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS passive microwave data.
Arctic sea ice characteristics and associated atmosphere-ice interactions in summer inferred from SMMR
data and drifting buoys: 1979-1984.
Part III advocates a new liability standard, the SMMR
, and specifically examines its implementation-based utility when compared to Laufer's model.
inaugurated a special class of instrument, the conical scanner.
2003: Nimbus-7 SMMR
Pathfinder brightness temperatures.
Therefore, changes in sensor from SMMR
to SSM/I in 1987 are unlikely to affect them.
and SSMI radiative data are converted to sea-ice concentrations (percent areal coverages of sea ice) through a multichannel algorithm based on polarization and gradient ratios.
Zwally, 1996 (updated yearly): Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR
and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS passive microwave data, version 1 [1981-2011], National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, accessed 2016, doi:10.
Nishio, 2008: Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR
Both the SMMR
and the SSMIs are multichannel instruments that allow a more accurate derivation of Arctic sea ice concentrations than was possible with the ESMR.
Zwally, 1996, updated yearly: Sea ice concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR
and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS passive microwave data (1981-2011).
The analysis is complicated by a change in satellite system (from Nimbus-7 SMMR
to DMSP SSM/I) in 1987, but this problem has been resolved by Bjorgo et al.