SMURF1SMAD Ubiquitination Regulatory Factor 1
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MicroRNA-140-5p and SMURF1 regulate pulmonary arterial hypertension.
miR-140-5p down-regulated High PASMC proliferation dependent of SMURF1 pathways.
So, the Mek5/Erk5 pathway is critical for skeletogenesis in vivo through its expression in mesenchymal stem cells and modulation of Smad protein stability (Smad1, 2, and 3) via Smurf activity (Smurf1 and 2).
Much likeUbe3A, the HECT E3 ligase Smurf1 has been shown to regulate RhoA activity through direct ubiquitination and degradation in heterologous cells, resulting in an increase in filopodial protrusions [40], which resemble dendritic filopodia, thought to be precursors of dendritic spines.
Poo, "Phosphorylation of E3 ligase smurf1 switches its substrate preference in support of axon development," Neuron, vol.
Stegmuller, "The E3 ligase Cdh1-anaphase promoting complex operates upstream of the E3 ligase Smurf1 in the control of axon growth," Development, vol.
Overexpression of Smurf1 negatively regulates mouse embryonic lung branching morphogenesis by specifically reducing Smad1 and Smad5 proteins.
Zhang et al., "Ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 mediates tumor necrosis factor-induced systemic bone loss by promoting proteasomal degradation of bone morphogenetic signaling proteins," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Moreover, USP9x interacts with the WW domain of Smurf1 and stabilizes it [72].
Chen, "Smurf1 inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Among them some antagonistic effectors of osteogenesis such as Smad7, Smurf1, and Crim1 were found.
The steady-state protein level of Runx2 can be regulated by E3 ubiquitin ligases, Smurf1 and Smurf2, and it has been reported that the degradation of endogenous Runx2 can be blocked by a proteasomal inhibitor or by Smurf2 siRNA [55].