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SNEPSSemantic Network Processing System
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Three policy-forming function symbols are built into SNePS, each of which take as arguments a proposition p and an act a: ifdo(p, a) is the policy that if the agent wants to know whether to believe p, it should perform a; whendo(p, a) is the policy that when the agent believes p, it should perform a; wheneverdo(p, a) is the policy that whenever the agent believes p, it should perform a.
SNePS performs inference in a bidirectional fashion (Shapiro, Martins, and McKay 1982).
Since propositions are represented by terms in the SNePS logic (Shapiro 1993; Shapiro 2000b), metabeliefs--which are propositions about propositions--are easily represented without leaving first-order logic.
A SNePS proposition of the form P[??]Q is not a sentence denoting true when P is false or Q is true; rather it is a functional term denoting the proposition that, from the agent's point of view, if I believe P, then I am justified in believing Q (Shapiro 1993, Chalupsky and Shapiro 1994).
SNePS acts may be categorized on two independent dimensions: an act may be either an external, a mental, or a control act; and an act may be either a primitive, a defined, or a composite act.
SNePS actions and, by extension, acts, may be subclassified as either external, mental, or control.
Control acts are the control structures of the SNePS acting system.
SNePS actions and acts may also be classified as either primitive, defined, or composite.
If a SNePS agent is to perform a defined act a, it deduces plans p for which it believes the proposition ActPlan(a, p), and performs a do-one of them.
In this section, we discuss five example SNePS projects that incorporate metacognition: self-awareness; lack-of-knowledge acting; consistency-maintenance and optimization; contextual vocabulary acquisition; and mathematical problem-solving.
There are two aspects to our approach to self-modeling: representation techniques in SNePS at the KL; and PML-KL interaction.
The optional default act in the SNePS control acts withall and withsome provide for acting on the basis of lack of knowledge (see Moore [1988]).