Because the projected 2035 age distribution was available only at the county level, the 2008 age-specific mortality and hospitalization rates were aggregated to the county level and applied to the projected 2035 age-specific population in each SoCAB county to estimate the corresponding death and hospitalization counts (and rates in the [greater than or equal to] 45-year age group) in 2035.
The summation of this product over all parcels was divided by the total population, as shown in Equation 1 (by county and for the entire SoCAB).
Here, population exposure in the SoCAB is estimated relative to pollution levels averaged from 2005 to 2007.
The exposure assessment approach used in this study represents the population and ambient concentrations on spatial grids covering California's SoCAB. For the 2005-2007 baseline period, hourly ozone data and daily PM2.5 data were available at 24 and 14 monitoring stations in the region, respectively.
We obtained birth records for infants delivered in the SoCAB from 1 January 2001 through 31 December 2005 from the Non-Confidential Birth Statistical Master File, provided by California's Center for Health Statistics at the California Department of Health Services (California Automated Vital Statistics System 2006, unpublished data).
The SoCAB, which forms the geographic basis for our study population, includes the entirety of Orange County as well as populous areas within Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and Riverside counties.
In this case they use this capability to assess school absences for children by geographic region and across the SoCAB.
Researchers first developed the model to support assessment of the economic benefits of attaining AQSs in the SoCAB (Winer et al., 1989; Hall et al., 1989, 1992).
The SoCAB includes California's largest metropolitan region, covering the southern two thirds of Los Angeles County, all of Orange County, and the western urbanized portions of Riverside and San Bernadino counties.
We identified all infants with record of a single hospitalization in the first year of life with a discharge diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis [International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, CM466.1 (World Health Organization 1978)] and a birth residence in a SoCAB ZIP code represented by an ambient air pollution monitor.
2000), we performed a ZIP-code-level analysis in which we selected all births during 1994-2000 to mothers who resided in a ZIP code whose area fell at least 60% within a 2-mi radius of a monitoring station (31 SoCAB ZIP codes met this criterion in 1994-2000, resulting in a total of 146,972 births).
In the SoCAB, this is due to well known seasonal and geographic patterns for these pollutants.