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California will solve the problem of whether or not the addict as such can be permanently cured." He was optimistic: In early 1931 Spadra not only held its capacity of 95 but was referring patients to nearby state hospitals.
One proposal, floated by Young at the first of the year, was to have state and federal narcotics officers "pick up addicts that meet the requirements of the officials in charge of Spadra." Walker did not object to this rather desperate plan, but he reminded Anslinger that because the state had very few enforcement officers, the burden of its achievement would be largely on the FBN.
Harry Smith forwarded to Anslinger a next-best proposal: Spadra could be used as a probationary alternative to prison for selected federal drug offenders.
As these ideas were being discussed, Spadra's chief parole officer returned bad news.
The colony plan also fit Young's reluctant conclusion that the only addicts Spadra could get were "just the kind which we can not help." Thus the promotion of addict colonization, envisioned in Spadra's original design, became fundamental to Young's strategy to keep Spadra open.
Although Walker supported maintenance, he also asked Olson for more enforcement money; and although he regarded Spadra as a failure, he was happy to have addicts sent to the new federal hospitals opened at Lexington (in 1935) and Fort Worth (in 1938), albeit because they were federally supported.(60)
The Hearst papers dusted off their earlier warnings about clinics as migration magnets, recalled the spectre of the disgraced Jost Bill, and, disregarding the stricter commitment requirements achieved by Young and Joyce, claimed that Spadra was curing addicts "of the worst type," thus putting its low cure rate in a novel light.
However, as Young feared, Walker's defection had doomed Spadra. Olson never made appointments to the hospital's advisory board, and he pocketed a successful colonization bill because his new director of institutions, Los Angeles psychiatrist Aaron Rosanoff, was determined to relieve the state of Spadra's cost.
Danford was arrested for forging prescriptions and was sent to Spadra. She was released in December, "cured" once more.
Not even the small, politically well-connected State Narcotic Hospital at Spadra could survive the state's financial collapse.
(22.) Spadra's enabling legislation: Statutes of California, Forty-Seventh Session (1927), Chapter 89; Statutes of California, Forty-Eighth Session (1929), Chapter 406.
Jordan, "Larger State Dope Hospital Plan Adopted," San Francisco Examiner, January 16, 1931, AP, Box 6, File 5; "Assembly Passes Bills to Strengthen State Narcotic Act," San Francisco Examiner, April 9, 1931, 20; "Spadra Measure Signed by Rolph," San Francisco Examiner, April 25, 1931, 11 (superintendent's discretion).
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- spading it up
- spading something up
- spading that up
- spading the ground up
- spading the soil up
- spading up
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- Spaeth classification
- Spaeth classification
- Spaeth Gonioscopic Grading System