The LPS caused a significant fall in systolic blood pressure from 3 to 24 h, and a significant decrease in heart rate from 9 to 24 h in wild-type and SPAK knockout mice [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.
The level of blood glucose was significantly decreased at 24 h after LPS administration in wild-type and SPAK knockout mice [Figure 2]a.
At 24 h after LPS, the levels of LDH, ALT, BUN, and CRE were significantly increased in wild-type and SPAK knockout mice [Figure 3]a,[Figure 3]b,[Figure 3]c,[Figure 3]d.
This Transitional-SPAK allowed employers to claim, within limits, half of the lost SPAK for a maximum of two years.
A first survey of employers by the Netherlands Economic Institute showed that, over the period 1996-98, SPAK increased the employment of low-paid workers by some 54 000-64 000 persons and total employment by some 46 000-59 000 persons.
Consider turning SPAK (targeted at employers) into earned income tax credits (targeted at employees).
SPAK reduces gross labour costs by a little over 10 per cent, but reduces the employers' tax wedge by almost 60 per cent (Table 9).
Recent empirical research by the Netherlands Economic Institute shows that, despite fears of major dead-weight losses,  SPAK has created about 60 000 extra jobs in the market sector since 1996, and VLW has provided a job for 10 000 to 20 000 long-term unemployed.
Since its introduction, SPAK has been steadily increased: in 1999 it amounted to [epsilon]1 806 a year for a full-time adult worker.
The Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources awarded SPAK
an exploration license for its gas project earlier in November.