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The SPCZ extends diagonally from around the Solomon Islands (10[degrees]S, 160[degrees]E) to near 30[degrees]S, 140[degrees]W, and is most active during November-April.
The first of these saw the SPCZ become remarkably enhanced in early February in response to an active Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) phase over the western equatorial Pacific.
According to these authors, the absence of the double-ITCZ-like structure in CFSR would result in improvements on the precipitation in SPCZ, which also leads to a better representation of evaporation minus precipitation.
But outside of the ITCZ and SPCZ, where values exceed 30%, the rates are more like 10% or so, and over land where most people live, values are closer to about 8% (Table 1).
2014) show the buildup of anomalously fresh water associated with the tropical Pacific and western tropical Atlantic ITCZs (including just offshore of the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers), the increase in SSS in the tropical warm pool, and the decrease in fresh anomalies under the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ).
The broad-scale patterns of tropical Pacific rainfall are dominated by two convergence zones, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ).
In addition to ENSO, key climate features in the southwest Pacific are the west Pacific Monsoon (WPM), which lies over the west Pacific warm pool, the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) aligned northwest-southeast in the southwest Pacific, and the subtropical high pressure belt which is part of the Hadley Circulation.
One presentation showed how ENSO's impacts on South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) variability, atmospheric energy transport, and teleconnections can differ between past, present, and future climates--presenting a challenge for attempts to reconstruct past ENSO variability from remote proxy records.
3.11a) shows 2014 fresher than the long-term mean in the western equatorial Pacific, stretching east along bands roughly under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ).
Rainfall variability at seasonal and longer time scales in the southwest Pacific is strongly associated with ENSO and the position and intensity of the major patterns of tropical variability, including the west Pacific monsoon which is active over the warm pool, the intertropical convergence zone, and the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) positioned northwest-southeast south of the equator.
3.11a) shows a large positive salinity anomaly relative to the average under the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ), sloping from near the equator in the far western Pacific to around 30[degrees]S in the eastern Pacific, similar to 2011 (Johnson et al.
The first TC of the season, Evan, developed as a tropical depression within the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) northeast of Fiji on 9 December.
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