If the given combustion phasing (CA50) target violates the knock or combustion variability constraints the sub-level combustion phasing controller needs find a feasible target that is close to the original target (and corresponding SPKT).
The adaptation function of the proposed SPKT control is outside the scope of this paper since it is not experimentally validated together with the complete model based optimal SPKT control structure.
SPKT and CA50 are also included as COV of IMEP prediction model inputs to better capture the synchronization between piston motion and the combustion process.
The real time optimization of SPKT has to finish within a single engine cycle.
The optimization can be considered as a process that compares the SPKT solution for the target CA50, COV limit and knock limit as demonstrated in Figure 4.
Figure 5 shows the information flow for the proposed RLS based SPKT optimization algorithm.
AGE, CML, and AOPP Plasmatic Levels after SPKT. AGE, CML, and AOPP results during the first year, at different 4 time points, are represented in Figures 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c), respectively.
AGE Skin Deposits from T0 to T12 after SPKT. On histological skin examination we verified that the AGE immunostaining was invariably negative in some specific cells/areas: the outer epidermal layer (stratum corneum), the erector pili muscle, and the eccrine sweat glands.
At least in 7 cases, we have also observed a decrease in the intensity of AGE immunoreaction one year after SPKT (from 3+ to 1+, or from 2+ to 1+).
SPKT treats two diseases, DM1 and end-stage renal disease, and is performed in young patients (most under 50 years of age).
The few studies in transplanted patients [24,25], one of them comparing a small number of SPKT to kidney alone transplants, have not been able to demonstrate additional benefits with the pancreas graft and euglycemia, besides the correction of renal failure with a kidney transplant.
Skin deposits were determined by immunohistochemistry, a manner to evaluate tissue lesion and its progression after SPKT.