We identified three items from the SPQ
that would indicate subclinical perceptual experiences (SPE): one item about auditory verbal distortion (item 31: "I often hear a voice speaking my thoughts aloud"); another about visual perceptual distortion (item 40: "Have you ever seen things that are invisible to other people?"); and a final item about mind control and communication attempts (item 55: "Have you ever felt that you are communicating with another person telepathically (by mind-reading)?").
Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged between 16 and 65 years with complete genetic, demographic, and SPQ
data were included in stage 1 sample.
* Identification of cognitive styles: All participants of the three groups were requested to fill out the SPQ
. According to the results of the SPQ
, the participants were furthermore classified into Holists and Serialists.
Second, participants completed an adapted SPQ
task (Takahashi, Ikeda, & Hasegawa, 2007).
Prior to combining the two results of the two sessions, the difference between the two cohorts was assessed based on the scale SPQ
This is true not only for the total SPQ
scores but both positive and negative schizotypy scores as well as cognitive-perceptual, disorganized, and interpersonal schizotypy scores aligned hierarchically in the 3 study groups (C&M>C>hC).
La estrategia de busqueda primaria fue la esquizotipia y se desarrollo para cada base de datos combinando las siguientes palabras clave: anhedonia, social anhedonia, magical thinking, perceptual aberration, perceptual ideation, magical ideation, desorganized schizotypy, schizotypal personality, SPQ
. scale, delus, hallucinat, psychot, schizotyp, general population, normal individuals, normal sample, healthy population, nonpsychotic, subclinical.
Comparisons of symptom scores between groups adjusted for age and education yielded similar results: PSC patients reported greater severity of symptoms on all self-report measures (i.e., the MFSI-SF, SPQ
, STAI, CES-D, and DAS-SF).
Perante estes dados, Biggs (1979) elaborou, como ja foi mencionado, outra versao que designou Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ
) (Biggs, 1987b), para aplicar a universitarios, e uma versao para alunos do Ensino Secundario que denominou Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) (Biggs, 1985, 1987b).
To measure schizotypy, we used Raine's (1991) Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ
) scale, which is a 74-item questionnaire modeled on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for schizotypal personality disorder (German version by Klein, Andresen, & Jahn, 1997; Russian version by Efremov & Enikolopov, 2002).