To the best of our knowledge, no tool currently exists to measure SSAD endorsement.
Each section (male and female drivers) of the SSAD questionnaire was finally made up of 27 items on four dimensions of SSAD: 7 items concerning driving skills (e.g., "I think that males/females are skillful behind the wheel"), 7 items concerning compliance with traffic rules (e.g., "I think that males/females comply with speed limits"), 7 items concerning risk avoidance in driving (e.g., "I think that males/females avoid to adopt a risky driving") and 6 items concerning courtesy behind the wheel (e.g., "I think that males/females are courteous drivers").
An index of stereotype endorsement was then calculated for each of the 4 dimensions of SSAD. As already used in a previous study on sex stereotypes in mathematics (Bonnot & Croizet, 2007), the index of stereotype endorsement was calculated for each of the 4 dimensions of SSAD, using the difference between participants' evaluations of male and of female drivers.
A score close to 0 meant that participant did not endorse the SSAD and evaluated male and female drivers similarly.
The section on male drivers and the section on female drivers in the SSAD questionnaire were proposed in a counterbalanced order (i.e., 136 participants began with the section on male drivers and 155 began with the section on female drivers).
Firstly, using Lisrel 8.8, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on each section of the SSAD questionnaire to insure the good factor structure of the questionnaire.
Secondly, ANOVA and LSD post hoc were used to explore the effects of participants' sex, participants' age, and their interaction on participants' evaluations of male and female drivers for each domain of SSAD.
ANOVA were carried out on the effects of participants' sex (2) and age (3) on all the indexes measuring endorsement of SSAD: male's driving skills, female's courtesy behind the wheel, female's compliance with traffic rules and female's risk avoidance in driving.
A questionnaire measuring SSAD was therefore created.
Concerning sex differences in the endorsement of SSAD, results show no sex differences in the endorsement of the stereotypes stating that females are more compliant with traffic rules and more courteous behind the wheel than males.
Concerning age differences in the endorsement of SSAD, age differences are found in the stereotype concerning male's driving skills and female's courtesy behind the wheel.