References in periodicals archive ?
The data sources for the results presented in the following section are the Nimbus 7 SMMR and three DMSP SSMIs. The SMMR provided data every other day for most of the period from 26 October 1978 through 20 August 1987.
Various technical differences in the four data sources (the SMMR and three SSMIs) have complicated the merging of the data records into a consistent combined data set.
This paper presents a variety of measures of the variability of Arctic sea ice distributions, all calculated from a recently completed 18-year data set of sea ice concentrations derived from the satellite passive-microwave observations of the Nimbus 7 SMMR and the DMSP F8, F11, and F13 SSMIs. Figures 4-8 and 11 give summary depictions of the variability of Arctic sea ice distributions for the period 1979-96, while Figures 2a, 3, 9, and 10 add illustrative details for individual months and years.
A composite image of SSMIS IWV during the afternoon of 7 February (Fig.
(a) Composite SSMIS IWV (mm) from descending satellite orbits between 1200 and 2359 UTC 7 Feb.
DMSP = Defense Meteorological Satellite Program; ITPR = Infrared Temperature Profile Radiometer; NEMS = Nimbus-5 Satellite Microwave Spectrometer; SCAMS = Scanning Microwave Spectrometer; SSM/T = Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Profiler; SSMIS = Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder; MWTS = Microwave Temperature Sounder; MWHS = Microwave Humidity Sounder.
Richardson, 2008: Observations of tropical cyclones with the SSMIS. IEEE Trans.
(a) Eastern Pacific Hurricane Flossie ocean surface vector winds as determined by India's Oceansat-2 scatterometer at 0956 UTC 29 Jul 2013, overlain on a GOES-15 (GOES-West) IR image (0930 UTC) as the storm is approaching the Hawaiian Islands, (b) Passive microwave imager (F-18 SSMIS) 91-GHz "color composite" product at 0617 UTC, 3 h earlier, highlighting the separation of the LLCC and mid- to upper-level rain center.
Currently, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites occupy the early-AM orbit and host the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), which has some sounding channels similar to those on AMSU-A.
NCEP did not use DMSP SSMIS data operationally until February 2015 and therefore the data were not included in this OSE.
We used two satellite passive-microwave data sets, one from NASA's Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the other from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI).
The SMMR and SSMI radiative data are converted to sea-ice concentrations (percent areal coverages of sea ice) through a multichannel algorithm based on polarization and gradient ratios.
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