To determine if individual improvement on the MARS, TAI, and STAI
from pretreatment to posttreatment through follow-up exceeded that which could be attributed to limited instrument reliability, separate reliable change indices were calculated for each.
PHQ-9 = Patient Health Questionnaire-9, RSES = Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, SCI = spinal cord injury, STAI
= State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, SWLS = Satisfaction with Life Scale.
es un autoinforme compuesto por 40 items disenado para evaluar dos conceptos independientes de la ansiedad: la ansiedad como estado (condicion emocional transitoria) y la ansiedad como rasgo (propension ansiosa relativamente estable).
and VAS scores were determined during the preoperative visit.
As a group, the participants with CBS exhibited higher levels of anxiety than did the N-CBS participants when measured with both the STAI
and GHQ surveys (see Table 2), but these differences did not reach statistical significance when the Bonferonni correction was applied.
Mean and (standard error) total and subscale scores for the EFI, POMS and STAI
The result of the STAI
was conducted according to Spielberger and coauthors (15,16).
Participants completed the demographics survey followed by the MDI, DMS, MBAS, SPAS, YBOCS, and STAI
There was no significant association between either elevated STAI
state or trait anxiety scores and age group ([chi square]=1.
Pre and post test comparisons for overall differences in the STAI
between each condition were analyzed.
Scores on the STAI
have a direct interpretation: high scores on their respective scales mean more trait or state anxiety and low scores mean less.
The researchers discovered that the TT group showed a statistically significant reduction in STAI
scores immediately following TT interventions, with the average post-intervention STAI
score being 43.