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Eugene Nalivaiko, they started by questioning 30 healthy young volunteers about their mental well-being, and then subjecting them to skin conductance-based acoustic startle
We observed that exaggerated startle
responses and stiffness of legs following startle
reduced with the treatment.
As proposed in , the moving distance of the fish larvae under a short tone burst stimulus can be used as a measure of its auditory startle
Concomitant responses in OOc and/or SCM, indicating a generalized startle
reaction, may serve to differentiate early released motor responses due to stimulus intensity alone from those due to additional startle
Similarly elicited startles
, a movement response to the presentation of a loud noise, occur less frequently in foetuses exposed to alcohol compared to foetuses whose mothers do not drink.
Here we attempt to confirm that a startle
response forms part of the neuromuscular response evoked during a rear-end collision.
The experimental findings using the startle
reflex paradigm have generally shown that blink magnitude is similarly enhanced when anticipating a variety of aversive events, such as intense noise blasts (Patrick & Berthot, 1995; Skolnick & Davidson, 2002), or electric shocks (Bradley, Moulder, & Lang, 2005; Bradley, Silakowski, & Lang, 2008; Grillon, Ameli, Merikangas, Woods, & Davis, 1993; Grillon, Ameli, Woods, Merikangas, & Davis, 1991; Grillon & Davis, 1995; Poy et al., 2007).
As noted by Wilkens et al., (1986) the startle
reflex is subject to habituation.
While earlier studies considered startle
reflexes to be particular to mammals, Hoy (1989) stated that "all behaviors that have survival value are likely to be found in all animals facing similar problems." For many insects, a quick escape by crawling or flying is the primary mode of defense.
response: the flexor muscles in our hands tighten when something startles