Samples Cmo8699AB and Cni7867AB, each collected near the same village but from 2 different NHP species, contained nearly identical STLV sequences with highest nucleotide identity to viruses in the PTLV-3 group, but they exhibited high divergence in this small region of tax (Figure 2; Table 4).
These discoveries demonstrate that the diversity of PTLV is far from understood and that zoonotic infection with STLV continues in persons exposed to NHPs (7).
Our detection of a 7% prevalence of STLV infection among hunted wild monkeys is comparable to the 8%-11% seroreactivity to PTLV recently found in monkey and ape samples collected mostly at urban bushmeat markets in Cameroon (9,25).
Given the propensity of STLV to cross species boundaries, the increased frequency of hunting and demand for primate bushmeat in Africa, and the apparent broad diversity of STLV subtypes in Cameroon (9,21), it is tempting to speculate that human infection with this unique STLV-3 subtype will or may have already occurred.
Combined, these findings further support the hypothesis of active cross-species transmission of STLV to humans in this region (7).
In summary, we found broad diversity of STLV in NHPs from Cameroon and identified a novel STLV-3 subtype.
9) * DBS, dried blood spots; STLV, simian T-lymphotropic virus; LTR, long terminal repeat.
Studies have shown that the diversity of HTLV is directly related to the genetic diversity of the STLVs from which the primary zoonotic infection originated (5,16).
STLV testing showed 9 samples to be reactive on ELISA, but none were confirmed positive by immunoblot.
fascicularis in Indonesia by serologic methods and PCR suggested an STLV prevalence between 3.
Nine samples were ELISA-positive for simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), but none were positive on immunoblot, and nested PCR detected no STLV DNA.