Despite the high prevalence of STLV-1, simian foamy virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections among red colobus populations (8) and the fact that this nonhuman primate species is the one most frequently hunted by humans (4), most zoonotic transmissions of retroviruses in western Africa seem to originate from sooty mangabeys, as shown here for STLV-1 and previously described for simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, the precursor of HIV-2 (12).
Considering the human exposure to nonhuman primate bushmeat in this region (as illustrated by [approximately equal to] 150,000 kg sold per year in markets) (15) and given the high prevalence of STLV-1 among local nonhuman primates (7,8), the observation that zoonotic transmission events are, in absolute terms, exceedingly rare is striking.
In our study, 75% of persons who were identified as infected with viruses closely related to STLV-1 were men, whereas all HTLV-1A-infected persons were women.
Diversity of STLV-1 strains in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from Cote d'Ivoire.
Characteristics of persons positive for HTLV-1 or STLV-1 in a study of the origin of HTLV-1, rural western Africa, 2006-2007 * Minimum observed distance to any Study STLV-1, % participant ([dagger]), Infecting sex subtype LTR env Gah050, M STLV-1I/SM 0.
GenBank accession numbers for the STLV-1 LTR, STLV-3 LTR, STLV-3 (Cmo8699AB) tax-LTR, and small tax sequences are EU152271-EU152276, EU152277-EU152279, EU152280-EU152281, and EU152282-EU152293, respectively.
nictitans monkeys) were infected with STLV-1 and that 3 ( C.
nictitans monkeys all clustered in the central African HTLV-1 subtype D clade, consisting of STLV-1 from Mandrillus sphinx and Cercopithecus pogonias monkeys and HTLV-1 sequences from Cameroon (Figure 6).
Indeed, phylogenetic analysis of PTLV-1 LTR sequences shows that the new STLV-1 from C.
Epidemiology, origin and genetic diversity of HTLV-1 retrovirus and STLV-1 simian affiliated retrovirus [in French].
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 16 novel simian T cell leukemia virus type 1 from Africa: close relationship of STLV-1 from Allenopithecus nigroviridis to HTLV-1 subtype B strains.