This robust postadaptation retention was present in all subjects in both groups and may suggest some form of STML (see "Discussion").
However, unlike this study, none of those studies examined the immediate profile of early STMA and STML in arm motor control.
However, those studies differ from ours in that they investigated MA and ML in the leg as a whole and used spatio-temporal gait parameters , joint angle-based gait symmetry , or muscle electromyogram [8,10] as metrics, whereas here we focused on studying STMA and STML at the HP ankle using position and torque information.
Hence, we believe that this is the first time that STMA, and possibly STML, is being reported for the HP ankle following a single session of interactive robot training.
Therefore, our interactive training could have evoked STML at the paretic ankle with features that are characteristic of both CL and AL, as in Adam's two-stage ML model .
The small sample size limits the generalizability of our findings and requires that they be interpreted with caution; however, this was an initial pilot study to explore the feasibility of using the anklebot as an STML platform and an important first step toward making inroads into this relatively unexplored topic in motor neuroscience.
Although we found STMA and some form of STML in multiple indices of paretic ankle motor control, our paradigm did not assess whether these gains translate into improvements in gait function.
Gains in motor performance were retained on retest at 48 hours, potentially suggesting some type of rapid STML in these measures.