Although some researchers claim that STSD represents a phenomenon distinct from burnout (R.
Therefore, we added one item that specifically addressed one of the main symptoms that characterizes STSD and focuses on flashbacks and intrusive memories: "The work with terror victims never ends.
Although these studies used different measurement instruments, both showed that social workers who were exposed to terror victims did not report burnout, but did report STSD symptoms (intrusive memories, in our case).
Self-care techniques can reduce the likelihood of secondary traumatic stress symptoms developing into STSD.
To combat the symptoms of burnout, STS, and STSD, we have offered a self-care prevention plan based on the wellness concepts.