Although some researchers claim that STSD represents a phenomenon distinct from burnout (R.
Therefore, we added one item that specifically addressed one of the main symptoms that characterizes STSD and focuses on flashbacks and intrusive memories: "The work with terror victims never ends.
Although these studies used different measurement instruments, both showed that social workers who were exposed to terror victims did not report burnout, but did report STSD symptoms (intrusive memories, in our case).
I noticed that, when interviewed about the history of the Institute, respondents used utterances such as bury the hatchet, women and children first, put onto the map, have STSD as spear-head or flag, find other models more defensible, strategically a weak-offer, object to, etc.
Although STSD was promoted to others as a useful and practical paradigm, it did not seem to work for its advocates.
This can result in secondary traumatic stress (STS) or secondary traumatic stress disorder (STSD) in the counselor.
Self-care techniques can reduce the likelihood of secondary traumatic stress symptoms developing into STSD.
To combat the symptoms of burnout, STS, and STSD, we have offered a self-care prevention plan based on the wellness concepts.
The present literature in STSD regards the phenomenon of compassion fatigue, as equivalent to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Carbonell & Figley, 1996; Figley, 1995).
Given the high incidence of PTSD among consumers of mental health services, it is likely that grief-related reactions of PTSD or STSD among therapists have an emotional impact on their professional behavior and personal lives (Green, 1994).
The items presented in this assessment are grounded in the theoretical assumptions about the nature and phenomenon of burnout, compassion fatigue, and STSD as described by the review of literature presented in this article.