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Cores are defined as compact objects on scales of a few tenths of a parsec and are typically identified at sub-mm wavelengths.
[88-90]in the sub-mm using a combination of the SCUBA and Harp instruments on the JCMT.
From identifications in the sub-mm and infrared, only three of these clouds were assumed to be star-forming, with the remainder classified as starless.
Since these sources were selected from sub-mm data, the column density for each object could be constrained directly from the sub-mm flux density using (16).
The five positive detections from this sample of dark clouds were reobserved at higher resolution at radio frequencies [126, 127] in order to establish whether the microwave emission could be localized more precisely and particularly to investigate whether it followed the same distribution as the cold dust traced by sub-mm observations.
However, of the remaining objects only L944 (also star forming) exhibited an unusual morphology in the high resolution observations, with a nebulous radio emission region to the north of the sub-mm core.
In the extended configurations, the available frequencies are limited to the tuning range of the Gunn oscillator and its harmonics in the sub-mm domain.
This is the reason for the practical difficulty of fabricating certain classes of oscillators as the wavelength approaches sub-mm dimensions.
This work has also been applied to the development of a quasi-optical mixer imaging array, which is used for imaging the spatial distribution of sub-mm radiation from a plasma.