(51) See SWGFAST STANDARDS FOR EXAMINING FRICTION RIDGE IMPRESSIONS, supra note 44.
(55) See See SWGFAST STANDARDS FOR EXAMINING FRICTION RIDGE IMPRESSIONS, supra note 44.
("SWGFASr), STANDARDS FOR EXAMINING FRICTION RIDGE IMPRESSIONS & RESULTING CONCLUSIONS (LATENT/TENPRINT) (2013), http://clpex.com/swgfast/documents/examinations-conclusions/111026_Examinations-Conclusions_1.0.pdf [hereinafter SWGFAST STANDARDS FOR EXAMINING FRICTION RIDGE IMPRESSIONS].
Gishe, Message from the SWGFAST Chair, SWGFAST, http://clpex.com/swgfast/ (last visited Mar.
(31) See CHRISTOPHE CHAMPOD ET AL., FINGERPRINTS AND OTHER RIDGE SKIN IMPRESSIONS 1 (2004); SWGFAST Standard Terminology of Friction Ridge Examination, Ver.
We use SWGFAST's "failure to provide suitable candidate" category to describe a rather large category of cases in which a suitable candidate donor of the mark existed but their prints were not provided to the latent print analyst.
2.2.3 Exclusion is supported by the theories of biological uniqueness and permanence, probability modeling, and empirical data gained through more than one hundred years of operational experience." (SWGFAST 2003)
Because of the infinite combinations of friction ridge features and the configuration of these features with respect to the arrangement of the ridges, no predetermined amount of area or quantity of features is prerequisite to reaching an individualization conclusion (International Association of Identification [hereafter "IAI"] 1973; Margot and German 1995; SWGFAST 2003).
1.2.2 Individualization is supported by the theories of biological uniqueness and permanence, probability modeling, and empirical data gained through more than one hundred years of operational experience." (SWGFAST 2003)
Individualization is, "The determination of an examiner that there is sufficient quality and quantity of detail in agreement to conclude that two friction ridge impressions originated from the same source" (SWGFAST 2009).
Within the forensic latent print discipline, examiners may reach three mutually exclusive conclusions: individualization (identification), exclusion, and inconclusive (SWGFAST 2003).
* The Scientific Working Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology (SWGFAST).