unidentatum, were collected on multiple occasions over 14 years from solid wood packing materials (SWPM) originating from India that were either stored in warehouses or intercepted at ports-of-entry in Georgia, USA.
unidentatum in Georgia indicate that SWPMs are the most common source of these exotic beetles.
The spread of pests in solid-wood packaging material (SWPM) can significantly alter ecosystems, hurt regional economies, result in significant remediation costs and limit the international flow of goods (Mumford 2002).
The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is another exotic beetle now present in the United States that probably arrived in SWPM. It is native to Asia and was discovered in southeastern Michigan near Detroit in the summer of 2002 (Haack et al.
An international standard was adopted by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2002 that requires SWPM to be treated with a gas fumigant (methyl bromide) or with heat that achieves a minimum core temperature of 56[degrees]C for 30 minutes (FAO 2002).
Wood MC must be taken into account when developing a treatment scheme for SWPM. Relative humidity inside the oven or container used for the vacuum treatment will increase when wetwood is placed inside the chamber.
The risk of introducing invasive species through SWPM infested with wood inhabiting beetles is a major concern to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
However, SWPM is often already infested with insects that could complete their life cycles in the importing country.
As a result, further assessment of the potential for this occurrence is strongly recommended before pressure treatment is contemplated as a method for pest mitigation from SWPM.
A number of high-profile invasive species introductions have been associated with solid wood packaging materials (SWPM).