Here we examine the SWWA September frosts and whether the MSLP and blocking may have offset or countered the mean warming effects.
The Tebaldi and Molteni blocking index and frequency of detections near SWWA is fairly similar between weather@home and ERA-Interim (Fig.
Examining the observed circulation component of the frost risk, we see enhanced September MSLP west of SWWA and a low anomaly in southeast Australia and a southerly 850-hPa wind anomaly of 2.
Monthly weather@home MSLP was higher in Factual compared to Counterfactual west of SWWA (Fig.
Enhancement of MSLP west of SWWA was also found in the difference between the weather@home 1986-2015 Factual September climatology and the equivalent for Counterfactual, and between the POAMA 15-year September climatology of 2000-14 under current levels of carbon dioxide relative to the climatology with low levels (not shown).
Agronomic management followed local practice in SWWA.
When using a simple model calibrated for wheat in SWWA (model 17, Oliver et al.
However, most P fertiliser for crop production in SWWA is applied as MAP; in 2014-2015, 73% of fertiliser P imported into Western Australia was MAP, 11% was TSP and 9% was DAP (ABARES 2015).
The collection site for the soil was South Stirlings (34[degrees]35'S, 118[degrees]14'E), about 60 km north-east of Albany (35[degrees]S, 117[degrees]52'E), SWWA.
However, few soils in SWWA naturally contain free calcium carbonate (McArthur 1991).
20 mg Zn/kg for sandy soils of SWWA (Brennan 1992).
Liming acid soils in high rainfall areas of SWWA reduced the concentrations of Zn, manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) in pasture (Bolland et al.