Cold outbreaks and frost risk in SWWA are often associated with a positive MSLP anomaly over the Indian Ocean west of Australia and a negative MSLP anomaly across southern and southeastern Australia, advecting cold air from the south of Australia over SWWA (Ashcroft et al.
Here we examine the SWWA September frosts and whether the MSLP and blocking may have offset or countered the mean warming effects.
The Tebaldi and Molteni blocking index and frequency of detections near SWWA is fairly similar between weather@home and ERA-Interim (Fig.
Examining the observed circulation component of the frost risk, we see enhanced September MSLP west of SWWA and a low anomaly in southeast Australia and a southerly 850-hPa wind anomaly of 2.3 m [s.sup.-1] at the south coast of SWWA (Fig.
Two field experiments were undertaken in SWWA in 2014 at sites where lime treatments had been applied previously.
Agronomic management followed local practice in SWWA. Wheat cv.
When using a simple model calibrated for wheat in SWWA (model 17, Oliver et al.
However, most P fertiliser for crop production in SWWA is applied as MAP; in 2014-2015, 73% of fertiliser P imported into Western Australia was MAP, 11% was TSP and 9% was DAP (ABARES 2015).
The widespread use of lime to treat acidity has the potential to decrease the residual value of added Zn fertiliser and to require revised Zn fertiliser practices in SWWA. The effect of soil pH and other soil properties on the residual value of fertiliser Zn in unlimed soils has been studied in SWWA and the rate of decline in the residual value (RV) of Zn was reasonably well predicted by 3 soil properties: soil p[H.sub.Ca], %clay, and %organic carbon (Brennan and Gartrell 1990).
The collection site for the soil was South Stirlings (34[degrees]35'S, 118[degrees]14'E), about 60 km north-east of Albany (35[degrees]S, 117[degrees]52'E), SWWA. The soil was a brown loamy fine sand, known locally as Waychinicup sand (Bettenay and Poutsma 1962).
However, few soils in SWWA naturally contain free calcium carbonate (McArthur 1991).
In 1991, after a 17-day trial at Exeter Crown Court, SWWA
was fined pounds 10,000, and ordered to pay pounds 25,000 costs, after being convicted of causing a public nuisance by supplying water which contained amounts of the chemical likely to endanger public health.