There was broad overlap in the distribution of Salicornia virginica and Arthrocnemum subterminale.
The elevational range of distribution of Salicornia virginica, Arthrocnemum subterminale (absent at SL4 and ML), Parapholis incurva, and transition/upland species generally reflected the degree of tidal muting across sites.
subterminale and Salicornia virginica can affect the location of the boundary of both species (Pennings and Callaway 1992).
Salicornia virginica is the most salt tolerant of these species, but in 1989, a year of high rainfall during March, other species increased in growth and cover relative to Salicornia virginica.
Zedler (1977) found that the distribution of the low marsh dominant Spartina foliosa, which was replaced by Salicornia virginica along the gradient, could be limited to the lowest elevation because of competition with Salicornia.
The preferred host of the parasitic flowering plant Cuscuta salina in the Carpinteria salt marsh of California is Salicornia virginica in the high-Salicornia zone (Pennings & Callaway, 1996).
Initial observations suggested that Cuscuta salina preferentially infects and can strongly suppress the pickleweed Salicornia virginica, which dominates most elevations of California salt marshes.
Most of the marsh area, from several hundred metres seaward to [approximately equal to]70 m inland of Mean High High Water (MHHW) is dominated by Salicornia virginica.