The SPS scores were assessed by the Turkish version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ), which is shown to be a reliable and valid measure for psychosis-like phenomena among young adults (22).
This multifaceted construct appears consistent with that found using other measures of schizotypy (e.g., Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
) and given the existing evidences, a three-factor structure seems to provide a reasonable description of schizotypy in this age.
SPQ = Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
; AUC = Area Under the Curve; lofRef = Ideas of Reference; SocAnx = Social Anxiety; OddBel = Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking; UPE = Unusual Perceptual Experiences; EOB = Eccentric or Odd Behavior; NCF = No Close Friends; OddSp = Odd Speech; ConAff = Constricted Affect; Sus = Suspiciousness; $1K = Owed $1,000; $100K = Owed $100,000; Ret = Annual Retirement Income; Bodyl = Ideal Body Image; MedTrt = Medical Treatment.
Four measures of schizotypy were used: the Magical Ideation (MI; Eckblad & Chapman, 1983), Perceptual Aberration (PA; Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin, 1978), the STA (Claridge & Broks, 1984), and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ; Raine, 1991).
The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ; Raine, 1991) is a 74-item self-report questionnaire that constitutes a non-clinical measure of Schizotypal Personality Disorder (APA, 1994).
Irrespective of the diagnosis when means were correlated across all study participants (patients and controls), the performance was correlated with schizotypal personality traits: the higher the total score of the schizotypal personality questionnaire
(SPQ), the lower the performance in either the irony or proverb test.
Characteristic Control group SPD proneness t/[chi p Value (n = 20) (n = 20) square] Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Age (years) 22.9 (2.1) 22.1 (1.9) 1.19 0.24 Education 15.8 (1.7) 15.0 (1.6) 1.64 0.11 (years) Gender (male: 6 : 14 8 : 12 0.44 0.51 female) BDI score 2.9 (2.7) 12.6 (7.9) -5.18 < 0.001 SPQ-total 12.7 (3.9) 36.2 (5.6) -15.36 < 0.001 Abbreviations: BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; SPQ-total = total score of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
; SD = standard deviation.
A booklet containing four questionnaire measures was presented: paranormal belief, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
, Version B (SPQ-B; Raine & Benishay, 1995), and the Revised Transliminality Scale (RTS; Lange et al., 2000).
Likewise, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ) (Raine, 1991) has shown it to be invariant across gender, age, culture, psychopathology, and religious affiliation (Badcock & Dragovic, 2006; Fossati et al., 2003; Reynolds, Raine, Mellingen, Venables, & Mednick, 2000; Wuthrich & Bates, 2006).
Students completed three scales: the Creative Experiences Questionnaire (25 true/false items; Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001), which measures fantasy proneness; the Tellegen Absorption Scale (34 true/false items; Tellegen & Atkinson, 1974), which measures how frequently people engaged in absorptive activities; and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
, or SPQ (74 yes/no items; Raine, 1991; Raine, 1992, Raine & Baker, 1992; Raine & Benishay, 1995), which measures three factors of schizotypy: Cognitive-Perceptual (e.g., "Have you ever seen things invisible to other people?" or "Are your thoughts sometimes so strong that you can almost hear them?"), Interpersonal, and Disorganized.
The sibling group were divided into two groups with the cutoff point in the mean Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ) total score (M= 9.42, sd= 7.95).
The control group and relatives were asked to complete a Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire
(SPQ-74; Raine, 1991).