Tests of cognitive function included measuring verbal and mathematical reasoning, short-term verbal memory
, and verbal fluency.
All the participants were asked about their cigarette and alcohol consumption, and their cognitive function (including verbal and mathematical reasoning, short-term verbal memory
and verbal fluency) was then assessed three times over 10 years.
Each examination included the Alice Heim 4-I (a test of verbal and mathematical reasoning); a test of short-term verbal memory
(writing in a 2-minute period as many words as possible from a list of 20 that had been spoken to them); a test of phonemic fluency (writing as many words beginning with "'S" as possible in 1 minute); semantic fluency (writing as many animal names as possible in 1 minute); and the Mill Hill vocabulary test.
Another important finding of this study was that the modality effect observed in the short-term verbal memory
studies cannot be legitimately applied to multimedia-based learning scenarios in which subjects are required to comprehend and learn meaningful subject matter.
It is characterised by difficulties in processing word sounds and by weaknesses in short-term verbal memory
Short-term verbal memory
, inductive reasoning, vocabulary, and verbal fluency were assessed using a battery of standardized tests (Arch.
Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects reading and spelling and is characterised by difficulties in processing word sounds and by weaknesses in short-term verbal memory
Modality effects and the structure of short-term verbal memory
Compared with participants whose sleep duration was unchanged, this change to a longer sleep duration was associated with lower scores at follow-up on five of six cognitive function tests, with the only exception being the test of short-term verbal memory
Studies of short-term verbal memory
have typically used tasks which require explicit memory for serial order.