Along with absorbing heat (long-wave radiation) emitted to space from Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric methane also absorbs solar energy, or shortwave radiation
, in a process known as radiative forcing, and converts that energy into heat; this combination makes methane about 84 times more potent at warming the atmosphere than carbon dioxide in the first two decades after it is released.
During daytime, vertical walls of the urban street canyon reflect or absorb shortwave radiation
and decrease the effective albedo by the multiple reflection of this radiation between the canyon surfaces, the urban surfaces' albedo going down by 10% as compared with the rural surfaces (Frey & Parlow, 2009; Oke T.
As illustrated by Figure 5, the temporal and spatial variation of shortwave radiation
flux densities ([K.sub.i]) were much greater than that of longwave flux densities (L;).
The relatively higher soil moisture at the soil surface before about day 5 caused a lower soil albedo a (it had a negative relation with the surface water content in (12)); this, in turn, resulted in a smaller reflection of shortwave radiation
which caused the higher shortwave [R.sub.ns] and net radiations [R.sub.n].
Led by the destructive mechanisms of moisture, heat, shortwave radiation
and oxidizing agents, these relationships can trigger events between the indoor environment and materials of construction.
As the absorbed shortwave radiation
is different for sunlit and shaded leaves, different leaf temperatures were calculated for these leaves.
Multi-decadal variation of the net downward shortwave radiation
over south Asia: the solar dimming effect.
Turbulent fluxes in the ocean depend on factors such as the amount of moisture in the atmosphere, shortwave radiation
from the sun, longwave radiation emanating from the Earth, wind speeds above the ocean, and the temperature difference between air and water.
The application chapters in Wilson and Gallant (2000a) describe several such applications using slope, curvatures, contributing area, topographic wetness index (TWI; also called compound topographic index, CTI), incoming shortwave radiation
, net radiation, Prescott index, stream power index, relative elevation and elevation percentile.
Frost flowers formed and grew overnight in the absence of shortwave radiation
, while the net longwave radiation was negative and dominated the net all-wave radiation balance at the surface.
Meteorological variables such as temperature at 2 meters (T2), shortwave radiation
upward on top of the atmosphere (SWUPT), shortwave radiation
downward at the bottom (SWDNB), and air quality variables such as [PM.sub.10] were studied.
While the atmosphere and car windows are relatively transparent to the sun's shortwave radiation
and warmed little, the energy can heat objects, the study found, adding that a dark dashboard or seat can reach 180 to over 200 degrees.