Scientists believe further studies will help them understand more about the Simian Foamy Virus
Risk assessment: a model for predicting cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
from macaques (M.
In contrast, zoonotic transmission of simian foamy virus
, a retrovirus ubiquitous in nonhuman primates, has been shown to occur from macaques to humans, probably through monkey bites, although this virus has not been shown to cause disease in humans (5).
Despite the high prevalence of STLV-1, simian foamy virus
, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections among red colobus populations (8) and the fact that this nonhuman primate species is the one most frequently hunted by humans (4), most zoonotic transmissions of retroviruses in western Africa seem to originate from sooty mangabeys, as shown here for STLV-1 and previously described for simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, the precursor of HIV-2 (12).
In addition, contemporary simian foamy virus
infections from Angolan pied colobus and red- tailed guenons have been identified in persons living around an area where we collected samples from primate bushmeat, thus confirming ongoing cross-species transmission with simian retroviruses (35).
Widespread exposure to a broad range of NHP body fluids and tissues encountered during hunting, butchering, or keeping primates as pets has been implicated in the emergence of 3 different retrovirus genera: HIV, HTLV, and, more recently, simian foamy virus
Frequent simian foamy virus
infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.
Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus
reached 88% among adult animals.
These are key sites for the emergence of nonhuman primate retroviruses because of the high levels of human contact with wild nonhuman primates (5) and cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
(10) and primate T-lymphotropic viruses (11).
Simian foamy virus
(SFV) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in Cameroon.
The simian foamy virus
has been identified as a zoonotic retrovirus that infects people who have direct contact with fresh nonhuman primate bushmeat; this finding indicates that such zoonoses are more frequent, widespread, and contemporary than previously appreciated.
Another chimpanzee retrovirus, simian foamy virus
, has been reported to infect persons exposed to primates at zoos and research centers (13) and to infect Bantus in Cameroon (14).