Jackson et al., "A seminomadic population in Bangladesh with extensive exposure to macaques does not exhibit high levels of zoonotic simian foamy virus
infection," Journal of Virology, vol.
Blackwell, "Cell tropism of the simian foamy virus
type 1 (SFV-1)," Journal of Medical Primatology, vol.
Scientists believe further studies will help them understand more about the Simian Foamy Virus
Risk assessment: a model for predicting cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
from macaques (M.
Finally, nonhuman primates are host to potentially zoonotic viruses, such as simian foamy virus
, which has unknown pathogenic potential in infected persons (8), and Macacine herpesvirus 1, which causes severe, often fatal, neurologic disease in humans exposed to macaques with asymptomatic infection (9).
Simian Foamy Virus
(SFV) has spread to people in the Cameroon who have been exposed to the body fluids of the animals through hunting or eating.
In contrast, zoonotic transmission of simian foamy virus
, a retrovirus ubiquitous in nonhuman primates, has been shown to occur from macaques to humans, probably through monkey bites, although this virus has not been shown to cause disease in humans (5).
Despite the high prevalence of STLV-1, simian foamy virus
, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections among red colobus populations (8) and the fact that this nonhuman primate species is the one most frequently hunted by humans (4), most zoonotic transmissions of retroviruses in western Africa seem to originate from sooty mangabeys, as shown here for STLV-1 and previously described for simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, the precursor of HIV-2 (12).
In addition, contemporary simian foamy virus
infections from Angolan pied colobus and red- tailed guenons have been identified in persons living around an area where we collected samples from primate bushmeat, thus confirming ongoing cross-species transmission with simian retroviruses (35).
Widespread exposure to a broad range of NHP body fluids and tissues encountered during hunting, butchering, or keeping primates as pets has been implicated in the emergence of 3 different retrovirus genera: HIV, HTLV, and, more recently, simian foamy virus
Frequent simian foamy virus
infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.
Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus
reached 88% among adult animals.