David Hawkins, Ph.D., head of the University of Washington Social Development Research Group
, says the outcome signals that when students have positive relationships at school, they are less likely to engage in behaviors that endanger those relationships or "put their futures at risk."
Write to the authors at Social Development Research Group
, 9725 3rd Ave., N.E., Suite 401, Seattle, WA 98113.
"These are very high-risk kids with at least one parent who is addicted to heroin," said Martie Skinner, a research scientist with the University of Washington's Social Development Research Group
and lead author of a new study.
Williams, Van Dorn, Ayers, Bright, Abbot, and Hawkins use data from the previously described investigation conducted by the Social Development Research Group
. The authors examine race and gender differences in the onset of delinquent conduct and substance use among more than 500 students in grades 7 through 12.