For species recorded from transects (northern harrier, horned lark, Sprague's pipit, vesper sparrow, and meadowlarks), we used maximum number of individuals of that species recorded during a season on each transect, summed across all transects for an index of relative abundance (=total number of individuals) per site per year (Johnson, 2008).
The surprising positive association of Sprague's pipit with exotic grasses in our results is contrary to what has been documented for the breeding season (Robbins and Dale, 1999; Merola-Zwartjes, 2005; S.
This was surprising for Sprague's pipit because other studies reporting on wintering Sprague's pipits (Desmond et al.
Sprague's pipit, grasshopper sparrow, and Baird's sparrow are of international or regional concern for conservation (United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008; Berlanga et al.
We used flushing transect-surveys to sample species that were relatively easy to identify when flushed: northern harriers (Circus cyaneus); horned larks (Eremophila alpestris); Sprague's pipits (Anthus spragueii); vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus); eastern and western meadowlarks (Sturnella magna and S.
For example, grassland species like Sprague's pipit
(Anthus spragueii) and boreal species like the blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata) are ranked high in both responsibility and concern.
Ferruginous hawk Northern harrier Greater prairie chicken (NA) Sharp-tailed grouse Ring-necked pheasant Mountain plover (NA) Long-billed curlew Upland sandpiper Barn owl (NA) Burrowing owl Short-eared owl Horned lark Sedge wren Sprague's pipit
Bobolink (above) Eastern meadowlark (left) Western meadowlark Dickcissel Lark bunting Savannah sparrow Grasshopper sparrow Baird's sparrow LeConte's sparrow Henslow's sparrow Cassin's sparrow Vesper sparrow McGown's longspur Chestnut-collared longspur *Key: Declining Increasing Stable Insufficient data (NA)
Baird's Sparrows (Ammodramus bairdii), Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), Le Conte's Sparrows (Ammodramus leconteii), Sprague's Pipits (Anthus spragueii), Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) were absent from unburned areas.
Prairies that had not been burned for long periods did not attract Baird's, Grasshopper, or Le Conte's sparrows, Bobolinks, Sprague's Pipits, or Western Meadowlarks.
Occurrence of Sprague's Pipits was positively associated with frequency of native grasses (36%).