The distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation
(SAV) between 1999 and 2010 was used to index nursery habitats because Micropterus salmoides build nests near SAV (Durocher et al., 1984; Nack et al, 1993; Weis and Sass, 2011) or other submerged natural structure (Nack et al, 1993; Slipke and Maceina, 2007; Lawson et al, 2011) during the spring spawning season (March-June in Maryland) (Carr, 1942; Hunt et al, 2002).
The CFR index has been used for the assessment of ecological status based on submerged aquatic vegetation
in Spanish coastal areas (Juanes et al., 2008; Carletti and Heiskanen, 2009).
Estimated abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation
(SAV) was made visually for each basin and ranked on an ordinal scale of <5%, 5 to 25%, 25 to 75% and >75% coverage of the wetland (Bayley and Prather 2003).
Although this study indicated that hydrilla was the preferred vegetation type, very little coverage of other submerged aquatic vegetation
Estuarine habitat types such as submerged aquatic vegetation
(e.g., seagrasses), emergent intertidal marshes, and nonvegetated bottom have been thoroughly investigated, and their role as EFH is well documented (see reviews by Minello (1999) and Waycott et al.
TABLE 1 Land cover classe of Terminos Lagoon Coastal Ecosystem in 1974, 1986 and 2001 CLASSES YEARS 1974 (ha) 1986 (ha) 2001 (ha) Aquatic Vegetation 123218 123129 121370 Water 553016 559241 565516 Submerged aquatic vegetation
3848 969 3876 Urban 1583 2472 3116 Tropical Forest 201561 126071 138564 Grassland 25209 95484 85840 Mangrove 91001 91664 79546 Open spaces with little 547 953 2155 or no vegetation (Oslnv) Total 999983 999983 999983
These include dissolved oxygen levels, nutrient loading, chlorophyll a, nuisance/toxic algal blooms, macroalgal abundance, submerged aquatic vegetation
, and epiphytic growth.
Throughout its range along the North American east coast, eelgrass is the dominant species of rooted submerged aquatic vegetation
Algae can then cloud the water, effectively blocking sunlight from submerged aquatic vegetation
. Excessive algae can also decrease biological diversity and populations, resulting in diminished populations of game and commercial fish.
Submerged aquatic vegetation
is in decline, and oysters are at about 1 percent of historical levels.
Wildlife managers say mute swans are destroying significant amounts of submerged aquatic vegetation
and chasing other shorebirds away from their nesting sites.
The algae cloud the water making it difficult for larger submerged aquatic vegetation
to get enough light.