Three late-breaking abstracts will be presented on Sunday 1 September, including results from the BrilintaPhase III THEMIS trial and THEMIS-PCI, a sub-analysis of patients with T2D
and coronary artery disease (CAD) who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.
A previous study6 showed that, compared with the common T2Ds
, diabetics with comorbid depression had lower endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) level and higher serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, confirming the association between T2D
with comorbid depression and RAGE ligands.
The steady rise in levels of T2D
is largely due to the increase in obesity rates: Obesity is one of the primary risk factors for diabetes.
At the end of the three-year study, levels for all biometric markers in the 8-year risk T2D
model, including for hemoglobin A1c, high-density lipoproteins (HDL, or "good" cholesterol), fasting glucose and triglycerides, had improved across all study cohorts.
Recently, many studies have revealed the critical roles of miRNAs in pancreatic development and function related to the pathogenesis of T2D
. For example, miR-144 impairs insulin signaling by inhibiting the expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 in T2D
The guidelines recommend that all patients with T2D
and known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) should have metformin as their first-line glucose-lowering agent, while at the same time giving serious consideration to the addition of either an oral SGLT-2i or a subcutaneously injected glucagonlike peptide--1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) with demonstrated cardiovascular benefit as a second glucose-lowering agent (J Am Coll Cardiol.
The FDA most recently approved a new indication for INVOKANA[R] in October 2018 to reduce the risk of major adverse CV events, including heart attack, stroke or death due to a cardiovascular cause in adults with T2D
who have established CV disease.
The approval is based on two Phase III trials, which evaluated combinations of dapagliflozin and saxagliptin on a background of metformin over 24 weeks, in patients with inadequately-controlled T2D
The guidelines, in the form of an "expert consensus decision pathway," emphatically recommend that all patients with T2D
and known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) should have metformin as their first-line glucose-lowering agent, while at the same time giving serious consideration to the addition of either an oral SGLT-2i or a subcutaneously injected glucagonlike peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) with demonstrated cardiovascular benefit as a second glucose-lowering agent (J Am Coll Cardiol.
"The large blood sugar spike that follows breakfast is due to the combination of pronounced insulin resistance in the morning in people with T2D
and because typical Western breakfast foods -- cereal, oatmeal, toast and fruit -- are high in carbohydrates," said Jonathan Little, lead author of the study published in the Journal of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Forxiga is already indicated as a monotherapy and as part of combination therapy in adults with T2D
to improve glycaemic control as an adjunct to diet and exercise.
Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies have confirmed the role of T2D
in degenerative changes in the brain.