BAL from the right upper lobe revealed a positive Ziehl-Nelseen stain confirming tuberculosis (TB), and the TBLB
from the posterior segment of the right upper lobe and the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe for histopathological examination revealed silica crystals due to silica dust exposure (Fig.
It was a case series consisting of 50 TBLB
procedures conducted via flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope (among >200 diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures) over 24 months (April 2015 to April 2017).
2001 2004 Patient characteristics Age 60 55 Sex Male Male Underlying disease N/A COPD Smoking history (pack-years) N/A N/A Suspected disease IPF Lung cancer Cavity in the mass N/A N/A Bronchoscopy Examined lobe N/A RLL Procedure TBLB
Positioning N/A Supine Bleeding N/A 50 mL Sedation N/A Meperidine, midazolam Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of CAAE Lesion of infarction Bilateral Right frontal Air bubbles in the CT images (+) (+) Oxygen delivery HB[O.sub.2] NB[O.sub.2] Seizure (+) (+) Outcome Dead Completely recovered Reference number   Author and year Azzola Azzola et al.
Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of TBLB
of the patient, respectively, using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen Inc., Venlo, The Netherlands) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
was performed only among 11 patients who underwent bronchoscopy (n=30); histopathological examination revealed non-caseating granulomas in 8 (72.7%).
If BAL is inconclusive, TBLB
or surgical lung biopsy may be done to confirm the diagnosis.
A report by Yamaguchi et al (123) in 1986 stated that granulomatous angiitis was detected in 36 of 75 (48%) cases of TBLB
, with an average of 4.55 biopsy specimens per case.
Our study showed that maximum number, 8 (24.24%) patients were diagnosed with the help of BAL fluid smear and Bronchial brush smear, and Post Bronchoscopy sputum and TBLB
helped further in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Diagnostic procedures during bronchoscopy were performed as indicated and included bronchial washing, BAL and TBLB
Finding of hydatid in specific staining such as Giemsa staining, methylene amine blue staining, and Gomori Daya hexamine silver staining in sputum smear, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid smear, or TBLB
specimen can be used as the basis of diagnosis.
Only sarcoidosis (by TBLB
in some cases) showed less percentage (5.9%) of the cases probably because of lack of yield by TBLB
and confirmation by surgical lung biopsy.
The ORs for EBUS-TBNA versus transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB
) for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis ranged from 0.26 to 126.58, and the pooled OR was 5.89 (95% CI, 2.20–15.79, P = 0.0004).